In this book the author and his coworkers try to show how fruitful is to deal with current scientific matters for philosophy and theology. The book will give some insights and open new paths of reflection rather than giving a systematic or accomplished summary. In particular, the author and his coworkers deal with these problems by “dialoguing” with three classical authors, each coming from one of the fields involved: Albert Einstein for science, Aristotle for philosophy and St Thomas Aquinas for theology. In this way, we shall discover that many of the problems raised in the current research can find a new light when examined through the eyes of these classical examinations.The Introduction, which tries to sketch the historical and contemporary background of the book, is followed by five other chapters. Chapter 2 develops some epistemological reflections on the sciences, philosophy of nature and theology of nature. Chapter 3 journeys among several scientific disciplines and branches with the aim of grasping the main fundamental lessons that the scientific research may offer to philosophy and theology. Such a journey brings to three heuristic philosophical principles in view of a renewed philosophy of nature. The following chapter (Chapter 4) opens to a further dimension, the theological one, trying to envisage some theological hints that can derive when the previous analysis is confronted with St Thomas’ thought and approach. The fifth chapter addresses anthropological matters in the light of the epistemological, philosophical and theological enquires conducted in the previous chapters. A conclusive chapter that summarizes all the main results follows.